Experimental measurements taken by Electrosciences in collaboration with the UK XMaS beamline at the ESRF, France, highlights the requirement to control the pre-stress needed to achieve the very high piezo activity needed.
Stress induced transition in ferroelectric single crystal, see E. A. Patterson, M. Staruch, B. R. Matis, S. Young, S. E. Lofland, L. Antonelli, F. Blackmon, D. Damjanovic, M. G. Cain, P. B. J. Thompson, C. A. Lucas, and P. Finkel, “Dynamic piezoelectric response of relaxor single crystal under electrically driven inter-ferroelectric phase transformations,” Appl. Phys. Lett., vol. 116, no. 22, pp. 222903–7, Jun. 2020.